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Image Guidelines for Publication
http://www.eisenbrauns.com/page/PUBIMG

General Guidelines

In general, images sent to us should be:

  • As close to the original source as practical.
    For example, a drawing will reproduce better than a photograph of a drawing, and an original computer illustration will often reproduce better than the printout of the illustration. (An exception is 35mm film. Prints are much easier to work with than negatives.)
  • As close to the intended print size as practical.
    There is a limit to how much we can enlarge an illustration without losing quality. (Vector art, e.g., Illustrator files, are an exception to this.) Please send illustrations that are approximately the same size as you would like them printed. You're welcome to send larger ones, and have them reduced, but please keep in mind that anything larger than 8.5 x 11" will either have to be scanned in several sections and reassembled—an imprecise process at best—or sent out to a service bureau at an additional expense.

Materials we can work with

Click on a link for more information and helpful hints on each medium.

Photographs (digital)
Digital photography has improved greatly in the last decade, and we are more than happy to work with these images. It is important to make sure that the resolution is adequate. We reproduce photographs at 300 ppi (pixels per inch), and lineart at 800-1200. Practically speaking, a 600 x 800 scan might fill a PC screen nicely, but it would only print at a size of about two and a half inches. If you are ordering a CD of images with your developing, choose the highest resolution available.

Common question: How many megapixels do I need?

This largely depends on what size you wish to reproduce your image. A small spot illustration will have lower requirements than an image intended to spread across the front and back cover of a large book. Here is a rough guideline:

Megapixels

Resolution

common print size (roughly 300dpi)

2 MP

1600 x 1200

10 x 13cm / 4 x 6"

3 MP

2048 x 1536

13 x 18cm / 5 x 7"

4 MP

2400 x 1600

18 x 23cm / 6 x 8"

6 MP

3000 x 2000

20 x 30cm / 7 x 10"

8 MP

3600 x 2400

30 x 40cm / 10 x 14"

12 MP

4200 x 2800

40 x 60cm / 16 x 24"

If you do not have software that will give you the dimensions of a particular image, you can use another rough guideline: images on-screen should be at least three to four times larger in any dimension than they will appear in print.

Keep in mind too, that if you crop the image, it will make the effective usable size smaller, as well.

Photos may be sent in any common image format, although JPG is the most common. We are able to process most RAW formats (e.g., NEF, CR2), as well, but these will need to be routed through our in-house graphic specialist.

Photographs (film-based prints)
Photographs generally reproduce very well, and are easy to work with. Both color and black-and-white prints are welcome. The chief advantage of sending us black and white prints is that you will have a good idea of how they will look when reproduced. If you wish to have a photo cropped in a certain way, please send us cropping instructions on a separate sheet of paper or overlay rather than cutting or marking on the photograph itself. Many of our customers find it convenient to photocopy the photograph, and write and draw on the photocopy. If you choose to use an overlay sheet, be careful not to draw too hard; the dents do show up on the scanner.

Slides, negatives, and transparencies
We have equipment capable of scanning slides, negatives, and transparencies. Transparencies generally reproduce very well. Slides offer some unique challenges, namely enlargement and exposure. Currently, we cannot enlarge a slide more than 500% without significant loss of quality; in practical terms, an average 35 mm slide should not be reproduced larger than 6 or 7 inches. Slides are also notorious for being under- or over-exposed. Because of the scanning equipment, there is less that we can do to correct the exposure. If there are a large number of slides (20 or more), we usually send them out to a service bureau. If you are trying to decide whether to send us slides or prints, prints are usually a better choice. Because slides can just as easily be scanned from either side, a note about which way the figure should face is always appreciated.

Lineart
Lineart consists of drawings, illustrations and other material that is intended to be reproduced in black and white, with no gray tones. Most technical illustrations fall under this category. For best results, please provide crisp black and white originals, such as camera-ready copy, laser prints and high-quality photocopies. Printouts from ink-jet printers is less desirable, as the lines are often jagged or show banding, but we are able to work with these, as well. Artwork created with a typewriter or printed on a dot-matrix printer will probably have to be recreated by our graphic artist.

Photocopies
We understand that sometimes photocopies are unavoidable. It is, however, worth your time to make the trip to a professional, well-maintained photocopy center when making photocopies of lineart. The time and money spent at this stage will more than repay itself by avoiding the expensive reconstruction of your images. Gray areas, streaks, creases, handwritten remarks and the like will all have to be removed by our graphic artist--this is not something that our computers can do automatically. Photocopies of photographs reproduce very poorly.

Previously Printed Photographs and Artwork
Photographs that have appeared in other publications can often be rescanned, although results are rarely as good as the original photograph. The main factor in this matter is the linescreen, or how fine the dots are that make up the photograph. Fine-art photographs on coated paper often come out quite well; conversely, coarse images printed on newsprint typically fare poorly--at best, they will be as good as the newspaper photograph. If you do use material that have appeared in other publications, it is your responsibility to acquire any necessary permissions.

Maps
Maps are frequently troublesome, largely because of the addition of shading, and even more so when corrections must be made to them. Commercially available, pre-printed aps reproduce best when we have the original, rather than a photocopy. If you wish to use a map that you have created yourself, you will get the best results if you let us do the shading for you, or provide the computer files (e.g., Illustrator or Photoshop) that you used to create them. This not only ensures that the map will print well, but it also makes it much easier should there be a need to make corrections to the text.

A Word on Why Shading can be Difficult

The addition of type to an illustration is usually the cause of many headaches concerning maps. The illustration on the right is typically what you might see as one is creating a map on a computer--this looks fine, because the background is a uniform gray.

Map - 40% Gray, Halftone Screen Map - 40% Gray, Continuous Tone

However, because many authors send us a print of the file, rather than the file itself, many maps come out looking a bit more like the one on the left--which, as you can see, is a good deal more difficult to read. Any grays that you use in an illustration reproduce as a pattern of black dots; if these dots are too large, or too dark, they can interfere with the type. Another reason that shading can be difficult is because many would be map-makers use shading that is too dark; typically, a shading value of 10% gray is more than sufficient to set off a particular area. If one needs more than one level of shading, we recommend making it in steps of 10%-- e.g., white, 10% gray, 20% gray, etc. These values allow you to set black type on top of shaded areas, and have the type remain legible.

Computer-generated illustrations

Original Files

Program/Format

Photoshop

Supported.
Where you have used layers to create your illustration, please leave the layers intact instead of flattening the image.
Preferred Formats: .psd, .tiff, .eps, .jpg (save at "Max Quality")
See notes on resolution.

Illustrator

Supported.
Where you have used layers to create your illustration, please leave the layers intact instead of flattening the image.
Preferred Formats: .ai, .eps, .tiff
See notes on resolution.

InDesign

Supported
Please provide all linked files and fonts.

PageMaker

Supported through InDesign.

FrameMaker

Supported.

QuarkXPress

Supported through InDesign.
Please provide all linked files and fonts.
Where you have used layers to create your illustration, please leave the layers intact instead of flattening the image.
Provide clean, quality printouts in case we need to scan.

FreeHand

Not directly supported; save file as an .eps or .tiff, and provide clean, quality printouts in case we need to scan.

CorelDraw

Not directly supported; save file as an .eps or .tiff, and provide clean, quality printouts in case we need to scan.

AutoCAD

Not directly supported; save file as an .eps or .tiff, and provide clean, quality printouts in case we need to scan.

Microsoft Word

Text files are supported. Illustrations created in programs such as Microsoft Word often have problems in translation, and thus we cannot promise how well it will turn out. We can attempt to use these, but you should provide clean, quality printouts for scanning, as well.

Please provide all graphics separately from your word-processing file. Submitting files with imbedded graphics will only slow down progress on your project.

Windows .BMP

Supported, but often these files are very low resolution and are a poor choice for illustration purposes.

Other Programs

Our preferred format for images is TIFF and EPS. If you have a file in another format, please feel free to ask any questions about what we can work with.

On Resolution

We reproduce photos at a resolution of 300 dpi, and lineart at 800-1200 dpi. Where both grayscale and lineart exist in the same illustration (e.g., maps) please provide graphics at the higher resolution.

TIFF, EPS, and native file formats are preferred. JPG files of adequate resolution are also acceptable, provided that they are not overly compressed—wherever possible, the "Quality" setting should be set to "12" or "Maximum". JPG files taken from the Web and video camera stills generally do not reproduce well, as they are very low (72 dpi) resolution.

A Note on Disks and Files

Computer Media that we accept:

  • CD / CD-R / CD-RW in most sizes. Disks may be formatted for either PC or Macintosh.
  • DVDs. Disks may be formatted for either PC or Macintosh.
  • Memory cards (SD or CF)
  • USB Flash drives *

*When mailing flash drives, be sure to use adequate packaging—the flash drive nearly always survives, but the packaging often breaks open.

Via e-mail

  • Please do not send files unsolicited.
  • Please do not attach files larger than 10 MB.

FTP

  • For large amounts of data, we can retreive files from your FTP site (there are many, free, publicly-available sites) or you may contact us about uploading to ours.
  • We recommend this option mainly for areas where local postal service is unreliable. If you have the time and reliable postal service, we recommend mailing us CDs/DVDs.

Other Media
If there is a medium that you might like to use in your article or manuscript that you do not see listed here, please don't hesitate to contact us; we'd be happy to help you evaluate the possibility of using your materials.

Communicating Your Preferences

Scale, Juxtaposition and Other Preferences
We're glad to receive suggestions and requests from our authors on the placement and relationships of the supplied artwork. For example, if it would be best to have two certain photographs facing each other on a spread, we'll do our best to accomodate that request. Or, say, if pot sherd A is twice as large as pot sherd B, and you think it would be beneficial to have them reproduced at their relative sizes, we can do this as well. Clarity and flexibility are very desirable in these instructions, as are well-defined priorities. If a certain visual relationship is vital, please indicate it as such; if the instruction is simply a suggestion, we appreciate knowing this, as well. If you wish to have a photo cropped in a certain way, please send us cropping instructions on a separate sheet of paper or overlay. Please do not cut or mark on the photograph itself. Many of our customers find it convenient to photocopy the photograph, and write and draw on the photocopy. If you choose to use an overlay sheet, be careful not to draw too hard; dents do show up.

A Note on working with less-than-perfect materials

Don't crop unnecessarily
We can do a surprising number of things to help a photograph, but we can't recreate what isn't there. If there is an unwanted element in a photo or illustration, contact us, and we'll see if we can alter or remove it in the least destructive and unobtrusive way possible.

Dust, scratches and other blemishes.
We can remove a reasonable amount of dust and scratches, but you are encouraged to take care in packaging and handling the material you send to us.

When labeling your photographs, please either use a soft pencil, or write on stickers (such as a Post-It notes) before affixing them to the back. The dents from hard pencils and pens show up remarkably well on the scanner. Please do not use white-out to cover blemishes on your photographs; this only makes them more conspicuous. Instead, indicate any spots that need to be touched up on a photocopy. We will do the touch-up digitally.

You might also be interested in these links:

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